Arcul de triumf ridicat de Galerius in Salonic, un monument al gloriei dacice

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Niels Hannestad afirma ca „cel mai important dintre monumentele tetrarhice care s-au pastrat, etse Arcul lui Galerius de la Salonic, orasul de resedinta al imparatului”. De unde Columna de la Roma si Tropheum Traiani erau monumente ale infrangerii puterii dacilor, arcul de triumf de la Salonic ramen peste veacuri ca un insemn major al triumfului dacismului.

Desi cercetatorii nu au cunoscut acest magnific edificiu de piatra, in afara de cativa neluati in seama, el se impune prin triumful dacismului in intreaga lume antica. Cu toate acestea, citadela peninsulara romana ofera o larga audienta unor urmasi ai lui Traian, in detrimentul imparatilor traco-daci. Vorbind despre Galerius, nu putem trece peste Arcul de Triumf de la Salonic ridicat de el in aceasta a doua capitala a Daciei, sud-dunarene. Este vorba de interesanta comunicare a cercetatorului Victor Stancu, intitulata Dacii in metopele Arcului de Triumf al lui Galerius de la Salonic.

Comunicarea nu a fost luata in seama, desi acest edificu monumental face parte din „triologia dacica”: Columna de la Roma, Tropheum Traiani de langa Constanta si Arcul de Triumf de la Salonic. Acesta din urma este „un monument istoric mai putin cunoscut, dar tot asa de important ca si Tropheum Traiani si Columna Traiana de la Roma”, dupa cum remarca cercetatorul amintit, ba chiar mai important. El va trebui prezentat in toate manualele scolare ale Daco-Românilor.

Arcul lui Galerius „a fost ridicat de Senatul roman, in jurul anului 304 e.n., pentru a glorifica victoria cezarului C(aius) Galerius Valerius Maximus” (al carui bust apare in dreapta, daltuit in piatra) asupra persilor, castigata in anul 297 e.n., cu ajutorul trupelor de daci, compatriotii sai”. Metopele monumentului „ii prezinta pe daci ca factor principal in castigarea victoriei, fapt recunoscut de toti cercetatorii, incepand cu profesorul danez K.F. Kinch, a carui lucrare constituie piatra de temelie pentru studiile celorlalti.

In continuare, Victor Stancu prezinta scena „Cuvantul lui Galerius catre trupele de daci. Scena se petrce la Sardica (in Dancia Ripensis). In centru, in mijlocul a doua randuri de soldati echipati pentru razboi, purtand drapelele specifice dacilor-teribilul balaur cu cap de lup- Galerius in atitudine oficiala a imparatului. Prin poarta din stanga intra alti soldati in aceeasi tinuta si purtand aceleasi drapele”. Acestia ar fi Dacii „din nordul Dunarii” care au dat ajutor compatriotului lor in lupta contra persilor.

Tot Victor Stancu mentioneaza ca istroicul roman Al. T. Dumitrescu, analizand metopele Arcului de Triumf de la Salonic, colindele de Craciun (Imparatul Ler, curtile lui Ler etc), legende, traditii, ridicari topografice in zona, precum si vestigile gasite in sapaturile de la Resca (vechea Romula), sustine ca Galerius era originar din Romula, unde avea si un palat si unde a fost inmormantat si ca scena Cuvantarea lui Galerius s-a petrecut la Romula.

Localizarea scenei la Romula (Resca, Oltenia) are la baza asemanarea capiteliului corintic al coloanei reprezentate in dreapta metopei cu capitelurile unora din coloanele gasite in sapaturile de aici” (la Romula). Dimitrie Cantemir, scrie: „mi-a povestit un voinic, Preda Stambol, roman din Tara Munteneasca precum in Tara Romaneasca aproape de Dunare, pe malul Oltului sa se fi vazand niste temelii de cetate, carora taranii de pe acolo din batranii lor apucand le zic Curtile lui Ler imparat, precum si din colindele Anului Nou si astazi au luat de pomenesc Ler Aler Domnul”. „O traditiune populara din comuna Cioara-Doicesti (Braila), se zice ca Ler a fost un imparat de la care au inceput colindele”.

Relatarea lui Dimitrie Cantemir Ler, Aler Domnul o completam dupa cum urmeaza: (Ga)Ler(Ius) Aler(Ius) Dominus (imperator). Este un argument in plus pentru identificarea celor doi Galerius cu Ler Imparatul Dacilor si a cetatii Romula cu Recica, Recidava. Si Victor Stancu trage concluzia ca „se impune o analiza meticuloasa si ampla asupra celor sustinute de Al. T. Dumitrescu”.

A doua metopa ce ne intereseaza este „jertfa lui Diocletian so Galerius ce precede lupta”. Alta metopa analizata este „Batalia din tara Kurzilor-Sarja cavaleriei dace”. Aici apare „Galerius  galopand avantat spre inamic, cu avangarda (doi calareti in fata care au angajat batalia) si in spate cu restul trupelor calare, toti purtand drapelul dac caracteristic. Armata cu care va castiga victoria este compusa exclusiv din daci, ceea ce este semnificativ”.

Dedesubt, „metopa il reprezinta pe Galerius calare, luptand cu seful inamic, care este de asemenea calare, si pe care il domina. Ce doi soldati ce urmeaza imediat calul lui Galerius, reprezentand, fara indoiala garda sa, sunt daci (dupa imbracaminte si scuturi), fapt de asemenea semnificativ”. Si incheie cercetatorul amintit, ca toate acestea „demonstreaza de o maniera sugestiva aportul militar important al elementului autohton din Dacia, la nivelul anului 300 e.n.”

Daca toata armata lui Galerius Maximus apare cu steagul dac (gnostic ofit) si cu ea castigase lupta impotriva Persilor si daca insusi imparatulk Galerius cel Batran se declarase „Dusman al numelui de roman si vrea sa schimbe titulatura Imperiului Roman in aceea de Imperiu Dacic” si chiar a schimbat-o, se mai poate cinva indoi de faptul ca limba traco-daca, Lingva rustica, avea circulatie in tot imperiul? Imperiu dac instaurat de Galerius, ca si arcul de Triumf de la Salonic constituie dovezi peremtoorii pentru dainuirea Dacilor de-a lungul mileniilor si ca asa zisa „nimicire” a neamului Dacilor este o simpla figura retorica. Adaugam ca inscriptia Arcului de Triumf a fost distrusa de peninsularii sovini.

Arcul de la Salonic este urmat de Arcul ridicat de imparatul Constantin cel Mare la Roma, dupa cum vom vedea mai jos. Ceea ce trebuie sa mai retinem indeosebi, este faptul ca „Ler Imparatul”, care apare in folclorul romanesc, este de fapt acest „imparat dac” Galerius. Ideea Imperiala si continuitatea Daco-Românilor pana in anul 1001 e.n., a fost tratata pentru prima data, in clarificarea continuitatii, de marele tracolog Iosif Constantin Dragan in Mileniul imperial al Daciei. Pentru identificarea lui Ler imparatulcu Galerius I si II pledeaza concluziile lui N.A.

Constantinescu, care trateaza provenienta lui Ler din Valeriu, ca si din Galeriu. Acesta vorbeste de „figura legendara a lui Ler imparat” (probabil legat si de „Lerui Ler” din colinde) pus in legatura, fie cu numele amintite fie cu Galer(ius); si Galerius si Valerian (ne referim la imparatii romani cu acest nume) care au avut legaturi cu regiunile de la Dunare. Nu am la indemana opera lui Sextus Aurelius Victor (361), decat fragmentele din Fontes.

Petru Maior socoteste pe Galerius „ dintra romanii cei de peste Dunare, nascut la Dachia ripense, drept din parinti prosti si el inca mai inainte au fost pastoriu de vite, pentru carea s-au si poreclit Armentarius, dar om frumos in trup, vestit si norocos ostas. Unde se nascuse acolo fu si ingropat; caruia loc el ii pusese numele Romulian, de pre numele mamei sale Romula”.

In nota sa, Petru Maior repeta: „Insa Galerius a fost un om drept, este adevarat ca neslefuit si rural, insa demn de lauda: avea un corp frumos, remarcabil ostas si norocos in razboaie, nascut din parinti de la tara, pastor de turme. De unde i s-a si dat porecla de Vacarul. S-a nascut in Dacia Ripensis, si tot acolo a fost ingropat in localitatea pe care, dupa numele mamei sale Romula o denumise Romulianum”.

Dupa Galerius Armentarius a urmat „intru imparatia romanilor, Galerius Maximinus”. El era „nepot de sora lui Armentarius”. Inainte  „ de a se face imparat se chema Dara”. Din familia lui, spune Petru Maior, se pastreaza si azi „preste Dunare” (la nord) „familie stralucita Dara”. Acelasi Sextus Aurelius Victor spune: „Galerius Maximinus nascut din sora lui Armentarius si numit inainte de a ajunge imparat cu numele adevarat Dara-prin nastere si instructie arata ca un pastor, insa avea o minte calma care pretuieste pe cei intelepti si invatati”.

Daca repetam singura eroare a lui Petru Maior, si anume, ca cei doi imparati, Galeriu Vacarul si nepotul sau Galerius Daran nu au fost romani, ci Daci- care au urat pe romanii ce-i robisera, informatiile sunt destul de valoroase.

Trebuie sa mai retinem faptul ca mama lui Galerius I se chema Romula si ca era daca. Romula este femininul lui Romulus. Locuitorii localitatii Romula sunt romanatieni (sau Romulenii) de mai tarziu. Datorita asemanarii intre viguroasa limba a Traco-Dacilor si cea a peninsularilor, sa nu facem greseala de a socoti ca toate cuvintele dace se trag din artificiala romana: „latina”.

Desi in toate studiile, Arcul de Triumf al lui Galerius este trecut intre monumentele de arta romana, pozitia sa, ca si initiatorul ei, dovedesc ca este vorba de un arc de triumf al artei traco-dace. Neglijandu-se cultura si originea lui Galerius-dac autentic- se produc grave erori. Traco-dacismul a fost dominanta teritoriala si lingvistica si chiar stiintifica. Alfabetul grec si latin au fost niste intamplari care au facilitat inventarul carturaresc, dupa cum cifrele arabe au deschis noi orizonturi calculelor universale.

 

Fragment din „Dacii de-a lungul mileniilor”, de Dumitru Balasa, sursa: http://enciclopediagetodacilor.blogspot.ro

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10 comments

  1. Este minunat ce descoperiti dumneavoastra. O adevarata lectie de istorie. Minunat ar fi sa nu va mai grabiti cu articolele si sa le faceti o corectare. Este important ca cei ce nu cunosc adevarata istorie sa citeasca aceste articole.

  2. Pictez pe tin acum aici:
    Ca o frumoasa seara
    De o frumoasa vara,
    Cu o frumoasa gura
    De o buna capsuna
    Ca o frumoasa ceara
    De o frumoasa fiara.
    Cu o frumoasa stea
    Ce lasi in urma ta.
    Cu o mandra lumina
    De aura divina.
    Cand o frumoasa luna
    Nu vrea sa mai apuna
    In cea frumoasa seara
    Din cea frumoasa vara,
    Cand cel frumos cuvant
    Ai scris tu pe pamant.

  3. Dupa ce am citit cartea “Dacii de-a lungum mileniilor” de preot Dumitru Balasa, prima dorinta a fost aceea de a mergela Salonic pentru a vedea Arcul lui Galeriu.Ghidul roman care insotea grupul avea o poveste pur comerciala, adica cateva vorbe cu privire la anulul edificarii, fara insa a pomeni ceva in sensul celor aratate in cartea mai sus referita. Am avut satisfactia de a putea vorbi tuturor celor prezenti despre adevarata origine a imparatului roman Galeriu, a semnificatiei imparatului “Ler”, primul imparat roman care a oprit prigoana impotriva crestinilor, care a avut curajul sa mute capitala Imperiului roman la Salonic si chiar sa ceara in Senatul roman schimbarea denumirii imperiului in Imperiul Dacic. Toti ma ascultau cu mare atentie si se intrebau daca acesta este adevarul istoric, de ce manualele nu-l amintesc. Ghidul surprins de povestea mea, imi cerea relatii de unde s-ar putea documenta si el cu privire la aceste lucruri. Tot grupul nu mai contenea sa se bucure de descoperirea fiecarui chip de dac dupa Arcul lui Galeriu, pe care il fotografiau cu ravna. A fost un gest mic, dar de mare impact, deoarece ma gandesc ca fiecare odata cu aratarea fotografiilor de vacanta a transmis apropiatilor lor si povestea. M-am bucurat sa citesc acest articol si sper ca prin gestul fiecarora dintre noi sa reusim intr-un final sa redam demnitatea acestei tari prin aratarea istoriei sale reale.

  4. Am vazut ceva fenomenal intr-un serial numit Ancient aliens in seria a treia episodul opt arata templul lui Antiochus,de unde grecii au luat denumirea zeiilor si unde se vede clar ca sunt reprezentati dacii….dupa port si fizionomie.Antiochus fiind cel care a studiat astronomia cu magii care au vestit venirea lui Isus Hristos, ghidanduse dupa o stea.Chiar el probabil a fost unl dintre magi.Acest lucru imi intareste ideea ca neamul nostru traco-geto-dac,prin parintii nostri:Antiochus,Justinian,Galeriu si Constantin,mai tarziu prin voievozii si regi nostri am fost aparatorii dreptei credinte…crestinismul.Crestinismul,care ne-a fost adus de intaiul chemat la Domnul Isus Hristos,sfantul apostol Andrei,ca la un neam ales.Este minunat sa gasim astfel de dovezi ale trecutului nostru.

  5. nici- un om din tarisoara asta nu ar trebui sa se indoiasca de adevarurile aratate mai sus si nici de faptul ca puterile lumii de azi sunt meschine si ascund adevarul istoric al intregului pamant.totul este dirijat de niste eminente cenusii diabolice,in sensul ca doresc cu orice pret a rasei umane..nici-o grija AL DE SUS nu doarme,sta cu sabia deasupra testelor lor spurcate.

  6. Totul este explicabil. Dacia a fost cucerita doar in proportie de cam 18%, restul nu a fost cucerit. La acest lucru s-a adaugat precum un blestem continuu stergerea a orice urma de istorie. Sarmisegetusa, pe vremuri o mandrie, a ajuns o ruina perfecta. Mereu si mereu, obsesiv au aparut in fata fel si fel de voci care in loc sa aduca Binele, Lumina au improscat cu noroi. Iata, fara sa vreau am auzit ca Ministerul Culturii are o singura angajata in complexul Gradistei, care mai are 4 ani pana la pensie. Ea mai taie din buruieni.Atat.Cum aratau acele cetati? se pare ca o cetate construita pe un munte din piatra, are lipsa tocmai… peretii din piatra.Se pare ca dispretul este la culmi apocaliptice. Preotii Daci tratau sufletele.Pun intrebarea:cum o faceau? Preotii nostrii mai nou trateaza portofelul.Placutele de la Sinaia din 5000 de buc. au mai ramas vreo 500. Acelea au disparut in cel mai sigur loc, in pastrarea Bisericii Ortodoxe, fara nici un act, se pare.Marea descoperire de la Tartaria, prima scriere descoperita, cu 1000 de ani inaintea Asirienilor, cu mult ININTE DE POTOP, auzi la ei, nu s-au facut poze asupra locului de prelevare, arheologul Vlasza Nicolae fiind…ungur.Asta in 1962.Frumos…si se numeste istorie, istoria neamului.

  7. LACTANTIUS – OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THEPERSECUTORS DIED

    http://people.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/lactant/lactperf.html

    PRIMA PARTE A CITATELOR

    CHAP. IV.

    This long peace, however, was afterwards interrupted. Decius appeared in the world, an accursed wild beast, to afflict the Church,&emdash; and who but a bad man would persecute religion? It seems as if he had been raised to sovereign eminence, at once to rage against God, and at once to fall; for, having undertaken an expedition against the Carpi, who had then possessed themselves of Dacia and Moefia, he was suddenly surrounded by the barbarians, and slain, together with great part of his army; nor could he be honoured with the rites of sepulture, but, stripped and naked, he lay to be devoured by wild beasts and birds,&emdash; a fit end for the enemy of God.

    CHAP. IX.

    But the other Maximian (Galerius), chosen by Diocletian for his son-in- law, was worse, not only than those two princes whom our own times have experienced, but worse than all the bad princes of former days. In this wild beast there dwelt a native barbarity and a savageness foreign to Roman blood; and no wonder, for his mother was born beyond the Danube, and it was an inroad of the Carpi that obliged her to cross over and take refuge in New Dacia. The form of Galerius corresponded with his manners. Of stature tall, full of flesh, and swollen to a horrible bulk of corpulency; by his speech, gestures, and looks, he made himself a terror to all that came near him. His father-in-law, too, dreaded him excessively. The cause was this. Narseus, king of the Persians, emulating the example set him by his grandfather Sapores, assembled a great army, and aimed at becoming master of the eastern provinces of the Roman empire. Diocletian, apt to be low-spirited and timorous in every commotion, and fearing a fate like that of Valerian, would not in person encounter Narseus; but he sent Galerius by the way of Armenia, while he himself halted in the eastern provinces, and anxiously watched the event. It is a custom amongst the barbarians to take everything that belongs to them into the field. Galerius laid an ambush for them, and easily overthrew men embarrassed with the multitude of their followers and with their baggage. Having put Narseus to flight, and returned with much spoil, his own pride and Diocletian’s fears were greatly increased. For after this victory he rose to such a pitch of haughtiness as to reject the appellation of Caesar; and when he heard that appellation in letters addressed to him, he cried out, with a stern look and terrible voice, “How long am I to be Caesar?” Then he began to act extravagantly, insomuch that, as if he had been a second Romulus, he wished to pass for and to be called the offspring of Mars; and that he might appear the issue of a divinity, he was willing that his mother Romula should be dishonoured with the name of adulteress. But, not to confound the chronological order of events, I delay the recital of his actions; for indeed afterwards, when Galerius got the title of emperor, his father-in-law having been divested of the imperial purple, he became altogether outrageous, and of unbounded arrogance.

    While by such a conduct, and with such associates, Diocles&emdash;for that was the name of Diocletian before he attained sovereignty&emdash;occupied himself in subverting the commonweal, there was no evil which his crimes did not deserve: nevertheless he reigned most prosperously, as long as he forbore to defile his hands with the blood of the just; and what cause he had for persecuting them, I come now to explain.

    CHAP. XXIII.

    But that which gave rise to public and universal calamity, was the tax imposed at once on each province and city. Surveyors having been spread abroad, and occupied in a general and severe scrutiny, horrible scenes were exhibited, like the outrages of victorious enemies, and the wretched state of captives. Each spot of ground was measured, vines and fruit-trees numbered, lists taken of animals of every kind, and a capi- tation-roll made up. In cities, the common people, whether residing within or without the walls, were assembled, the market-places filled with crowds of families, all attended with their children and slaves, the noise of torture and scourges resounded, sons were hung on the rack to force discovery of the effects of their fathers, the most trusty slaves compelled by pain to bear witness against their masters, and wives to bear witness against their husbands, In default of all other evidence, men were tortured to speak against themselves; and no sooner did agony oblige them to acknowledge what they had not, but those imaginary effects were noted down in the lists. Neither youth, nor old age, nor sickness, afforded any exemption. The diseased and the infirm were carried in; the age of each was estimated; and, that the capitation -tax might be enlarged, years were added to the young and struck off from the old. General lamentation and sorrow prevailed. Whatever, by the laws of war, conquerors had done to the conquered, the like did this man presume to perpetrate against Romans and the subjects of Rome, because his forefathers had been made liable to a like tax imposed by the victorious Trajan, as a penalty on the Dacians for their frequent rebellions. After this, money was levied for each head, as if a price had been paid for liberty to exist; yet full trust was not reposed on the same set of surveyors, but others and others still were sent round to make further discoveries; and thus the tributes were redoubled, not because the new surveyors made any fresh discoveries, but because they added at pleasure to the former rates, lest they should seem to have been employed to no purpose. Meanwhile the number of animals decreased, and men died; nevertheless taxes were paid even for the dead, so that no one could either live or cease to live without being subject to impositions. There remained mendicants alone, from whom nothing could be exacted, and whom their misery and wretchedness secured from ill- treatment. But this pious man had compassion on them, and determining that they should remain no longer in indigence, he caused them all to be assembled, put on board vessels, and sunk in the sea. So merciful was he in making provision that under his administration no man should want! And thus, while he took effectual measures that none, under the reigned pretext of poverty, should elude the tax, he put to death a multitude of real wretches, in violation of every law of humanity.

    CHAP. XXVI.

    Galerius having resolved by permanent taxes to devour the empire, soared to such extravagance in folly, as not to allow an exemption from that thraldom even to the Roman people. Tax-gatherers therefore were appointed to go to Rome, and make out lists of the citizens.

    CHAP. XXVII.

    But Maximian, who knew the outrageous temper of Galerius, began to consider that, fired with rage on hearing of the death of Severus, he would march into Italy, and that possibly he might be joined by Data, and so bring into the field forces too powerful to be resisted. Having therefore fortified Rome, and made diligent provision for a defensive war, Maximian went into Gaul, that he might give his younger daughter Fausta in marriage to Constantine, and thus win over that prince to his interest. Meantime Galerius assembled his troops, invaded Italy, and advanced towards Rome, resolving to extinguish the senate and put the whole people to the sword. But he found everything shut and fortified against him. There was no hope of carrying the place by storm, and to besiege it was an arduous undertaking; for Galerius had not brought with him an army sufficient to invest the walls. Probably, having never seen Rome, he imagined it to be little superior in size to those cities with which be was acquainted. But some of his legions, detesting the wicked enterprise of a father against his son-in-law, and of Romans against Rome, renounced his authority, and carried over their ensigns to the enemy. Already had his remaining soldiers begun to waver, when Galerius, dreading a fate like that of Severus, and having his haughty spirit broken and humiliated, threw himself at the feet of his soldiers, and continued to beseech them that he might not be delivered to the foe, until, by the promise of mighty largesses, he prevailed on them. Then he retreated from Rome, and fled in great disorder. Easily might he have been cut off in his flight, had any one pursued him even with a small body of troops. He was aware of his danger, and allowed his soldiers to disperse themselves, and to plunder and destroy far and wide, that, if there were any pursuers, they might be deprived of all means of subsistence in a mined country. So the parts of Italy through which that pestilent band took its course were wasted, all things pillaged, matrons forced, virgins violated, parents and husbands compelled by torture to disclose where they had concealed their goods, and their wives and daughters; flocks and herds of cattle were driven off like spoils taken from barbarians. And thus did he, once a Roman emperor, but now the ravager of Italy, retire into his own territories, after having afflicted all men indiscriminately with the calamities of war. Long ago, indeed, and at the very time of his obtaining sovereign power, he had avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name; and he proposed that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian empire.

    CHAP. XXXI.

    From Maximian, God, the avenger of religion and of His people, turned his eyes to Galerius, the author of the accursed persecution, that in his punishment also He might manifest the power of His majesty. Galerius, too, was purposing to celebrate his twentieth anniversary; and as, under that pretext, he had, by new taxes payable in gold and silver, oppressed the provinces, so now, that he might recompense them by celebrating. the promised festival, he used the like pretext for repeating his oppressions. Who can relate in fit terms the methods used to harass mankind in levying the tax, and especially with regard to corn and the other fruits of the earth? The officers, or rather the executioners, of all the different magistrates, seized on each individual, and would never let go their hold. No man knew to whom he ought to make payment first. There was no dispensation given to those who had nothing; and they were required, under pain of being variously tortured, instantly to pay, notwithstanding their inability. Many guards were set round, no breathing time was granted, or, at any season of the year, the least respite from exactions. Different magistrates, or the officers of different magistrates, frequently contended for the right of levying the tax from the same persons. No threshing-floor without a tax-gatherer, no vintage without a watch, and nought left for the sustenance of the husbandman! That food should be snatched from the mouths of those who had earned it by toil, was grievous: the hope, however, of being afterwards relieved, might have made that grievance supportable; but it was necessary for every one who appeared at the anniversary festival to provide robes of various kinds, and gold and silver besides. And one might have said,” How shall I furnish myself with those things, O tyrant void of understanding, if you carry off the whole fruits of my ground, and violently seize its expected produce?” Thus, throughout the dominions of Galerius, men were spoiled of their goods, and all was raked together into the imperial treasury, that the emperor might be enabled to perform his vow of celebrating a festival which he was doomed never to celebrate.

    PRIMA CONCLUZIE PERSONALA

    Probabil ca Galerius a fost motivat sa impuna reforme fiscale majore (ca si cum Imperiul Roman ar fi fost cucerit: a impus taxe tuturor persoanelor, inclusiv celor din Roma – care anterior nu fusesera impozitati niciodata) penutru a compensa ceea ce facusera Romanii anterior in Dacia.

    A DOUA PARTE A CITATELOR

    CHAP. XXXIII.

    By the middle of 310, Galerius had become too ill to involve himself in imperial politics.[111] His final act survives: a letter to the provincials posted in Nicomedia on 30 April 311, proclaiming an end to the persecutions, and the resumption of religious toleration.[112] He died soon after the edict’s proclamation,[113] destroying what little remained of the tetrarchy.

    […]

    These things happened in the course of a complete year; and at length, overcome by calamities, he was obliged to acknowledge God, and he cried aloud, in the intervals of raging pain, that he would re-edify the Church which he had demolished, and make atonement for his misdeeds; and when he was near his end, he published an edict of the tenor following:&emdash;

    CHAP. XXXIV.

    “Amongst our other regulations for the permanent advantage of the commonweal, we have hitherto studied to reduce all things to a conformity with the ancient laws and public discipline of the Romans.

    “It has been our aim in an especial manner, that the Christians also, who had abandoned the religion of their forefathers, should return to right opinions. For such wilfulness and folly had, we know not how, taken possession of them, that instead of observing those ancient institutions, which possibly their own forefathers had established, they, through caprice, made laws to themselves, and drew together into different societies many men of widely different persuasions.

    “After the publication of our edict, ordaining the Christians to betake themselves to the observance of the ancient institutions, many of them were subdued through the fear of danger, and moreover many of them were exposed to jeopardy; nevertheless, because great numbers still persist in their opinions, and because we have perceived that at present they neither pay reverence and due adoration to the gods, nor yet worship their own God, therefore we, from our wonted clemency in bestowing pardon on all, have judged it fit to extend our indulgence to those men, and to permit them again to be Christians, and to establish the places of their religious assemblies; yet so as that they offend not against good order.

    “By another mandate we purpose to signify unto magistrates how they ought herein to demean themselves.

    “Wherefore it will be the duty of the Christians, in consequence of this our toleration, to pray to their God for our welfare, and for that of the public, and for their own; that the commonweal may continue safe in every quarter, and that they themselves may live securely in their habitations.”

    A DOUA CONCLUZIE PERSONALA

    Deoarece Galeriu i-a persecutat pe crestini, relatarea facuta de Lanctatius il prezinta pe acesta intr-o tusa accentuata. (la fel ca si pe ceilalti persecutori Romani)

    Crestinii il venereaza pe Constantin cel Mare ca fiind persoana care a legalizat crestinismul, ceea ce nu este adevarat.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_the_Great

    In February 313, Constantine met with Licinius in Milan, where they developed the Edict of Milan. The edict stated that Christians should be allowed to follow the faith without oppression.[205] This removed penalties for professing Christianity, under which many had been martyred in persecutions of Christians, and returned confiscated Church property. The edict protected from religious persecution not only Christians but all religions, allowing anyone to worship whichever deity they chose. A similar edict had been issued in 311 by Galerius, then senior emperor of the Tetrarchy; Galerius’ edict granted Christians the right to practice their religion but did not restore any property to them.[206] The Edict of Milan included several clauses which stated that all confiscated churches would be returned as well as other provisions for previously persecuted Christians.

    Deci pana la urma crestinii asculta mot-a-mot ce a zis Isus: il cinstesc pe Cezar pe acest Pamant, caci le-a dat proprietatile inapoi.

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