Un mister istoric: Dacii din Roma

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un articol de Aurora Petan

 

Muzeele Romei sunt pline de statui nestiute de daci. Infatisarea lor reprezinta, insa, un mister. Invinsii au figuri de invingatori si decoreaza cele mai importante monumente romane. Admirati de zeci de mii de vizitatori, dar uitati total de urmasii lor din Carpati, dacii din Vatican si de pe Arcul lui Constantin ii lasa repetenti pe istoricii nostri si pe domnul ministru al Culturii.

Intre doua statui de matroane romane, Rutilia, fiica lui Lucius, si Rutilia, fiica lui Publius, se afla un bust colosal, sapat in marmura frigiana: cel mai mare bust din intreaga galerie Chiaramonti a Vaticanului, care numara peste 800 de sculpturi greco-romane, reprezinta un dac. Cu palma dreapta asezata peste incheietura mainii stangi, cu mantia despicata la coate, fruntea usor incruntata si gura intredeschisa, priveste inainte, drept si linistit: dupa aproape doua mii de ani, el inca priveste spre Dacia.

 

Intalnire de taina: Dacii din Vatican

 

Putini sunt acei ce stiu ca in muzeele lumii exista un numar mare de statui, busturi si capete reprezentand daci. O prima inventariere a acestor opere de arta a fost facuta in 1946 si numara 26 de piese. O a doua numaratoare, facuta in 1980, a crescut numarul acestora la 40.

In sfarsit, o teza de doctorat, dedicata recent acestui subiect, de catre un specialist in istoria artei, Leonard Velcescu, strange laolalta peste o suta de astfel de reprezentari de daci, iar numarul lor este cu siguranta mai mare. Cele mai multe dintre aceste lucrari sunt de mari dimensiuni, statuile pot ajunge chiar pana la trei metri, capetele si busturile sunt colosale.

Nici un alt popor subjugat de Roma nu a beneficiat de atat de multa atentie din partea artistilor plastici, iar Columna lui Traian, opera geniala, care a revolutionat arta romana, este un argument in plus in acest sens. Cele mai multe dintre statuile de daci au fost descoperite de-a lungul timpului in Forul lui Traian. Foarte probabil, au fost facute la comanda imparatului invingator, special pentru a-i impodobi forul.

Toate sunt insotite de eticheta “prizonier dac”. Sunt daci cu priviri semete, dar cu o atitudine linistita, fie tineri, fie mai batrani, fie nobili, fie daci de rand. In galeria Chiaramonti din Muzeul Vatican se afla un astfel de bust de nobil dac, ce depaseste trei metri, cu tot cu soclu, daltuit in marmura frigiana violacee cu vinisoare. Turistii de toate neamurile se opresc impresionati si se fotografiaza langa sculptura cu numarul de inventar 1697, fara sa stie al cui chip si suflet este inchis in marmura pretioasa.

Trei capete colosale de daci, deosebit de expresive, desi cu privirile sterse de trecerea timpului, se afla in acelasi muzeu, in sala Braccio Nuovo, galerie rareori accesibila publicului. Am gasit-o inchisa, dar la o simpla privire prin sticla dusmanoasa care ne despartea, am zarit chipurile inconfundabile ale dacilor, dominand intrarea in incapere. Cum nu puteam rata o intalnire atat de tulburatoare cu istoria, am obtinut permisiunea speciala de a vizita sala a doua zi, sub supravegherea unui jandarm.

Am lasat repede in urma atatea minuni tentante ale artei adapostite la Braccio Nuovo, incepand cu mozaicurile pretioase, vechi de doua mii de ani, care imi furau ecoul pasilor, si pana la colosala statuie a fluviului Nil personificat, si am alergat, printre zei decadenti, amazoane ranite si imparati romani, spre intalnirea cu cei trei daci. Pe partea dreapta a salii, la numarul 9, se afla un comatus, dac de rand in floarea varstei, cu plete bogate, usor ondulate, si barba scurta. In comparatie cu el, capetele de romani din stanga si din dreapta sa sunt de doua ori mai mici.

Tot pe partea dreapta, parca urmarindu-i din ochi pe daci, se afla un bust al imparatului Traian. Turul salii continua pe partea stanga unde, aproape de iesire si oarecum fata in fata cu cel dintai cap de dac, se afla si celelalte doua. Un tanar comatus poarta numarul de ordine 115 si inscriptia “Captivus Dacus” (Dac prizonier).

Are barba foarte scurta, parul taiat pe frunte, buzele intredeschise si aceeasi atitudine mandra, dar calma. In sfarsit, la numarul 124, se afla un tarabostes (nobil), cu binecunoscuta caciula. Este mai in varsta decat ceilalti doi, barba stufoasa ii este elegant aranjata, are parul tuns scurt la spate si fruntea usor incruntata. Privirea ii este dreapta, pometii usor proeminenti, intreaga infatisare denota inteligenta si hotarare. Despre acest chip s-a spus, de multa vreme, ca ar fi al insusi marelui rege Decebal.

La usa salii, turistii protesteaza: vor si ei inauntru. Sunt singura, privilegiata, in imensitatea salii, fata in fata cu chipurile atat de vii, atat de adevarate, ale unor daci de seama. Pasii carabinierului se apropie, anuntandu-mi sfarsitul intalnirii. Ii mai privesc in ochi inca o data pe cei trei daci. In tacerea Vaticanului, aproape ca ii aud murmurand, cu buzele intredeschise, o rugaciune.

 

Calea Triumfului: Dacii de pe Arcul lui Constantin

 

In luna februarie, la orele opt ale diminetii, Roma inca nu este inundata de turisti. Aproape de Colosseum, pe drumul pe care imparatii romani isi desfasurau procesiunile triumfale, se afla cel mai mare arc de triumf din Roma, ramas in picioare din antichitate. Este Arcul lui Constantin, ridicat de senat in cinstea acestuia dupa victoria sa de la podul Milvius, impotriva lui Maxentiu. Evenimentul se intampla la inceputul secolului al Iv-lea al erei crestine. Patru dintre basoreliefurile de pe acest arc infatiseaza scene de lupta dintre daci si romani.

Trecusera deja doua secole de la aceste lupte, dar ele, se pare, mai dainuiau in memoria romanilor. Se considera ca aceste basoreliefuri faceau parte, initial, dintr-un monument al lui Traian, apoi au fost refolosite la monumentul lui Constantin. Capul lui Traian din aceste scene a fost inlocuit cu cel al lui Constantin, dar dacii nu au putut fi inlocuiti. Dar, fapt si mai tulburator, pe cele opt coloane corintice cu care este ornat arcul, patru pe o parte si patru pe cealalta parte, se afla opt statui colosale de daci.

Aceste statui impresionante strajuiesc arcul la o inaltime de aproape 25 de metri. Patru dintre ele reprezinta nobili daci, iar celelalte patru, oameni de rand, fara caciuli. Cu totii au o atitudine demna, au capetele usor aplecate si mainile impreunate. Au barbi falnice, pletele le flutura liber sau se scurg de sub caciuli. Mantiile, ornate cu franjuri pe margini, sunt prinse pe un umar si le ajung pana la calcaie. Pantalonii sunt stransi la glezne, in picioare au opinci.

Privind in sus, catre ei, ai impresia ca se uita la tine cu blandete si intelegere, dar in acelasi timp, scruteaza zarea, pana dincolo de mari si tari, in Dacia lor. Statuile provin, cu siguranta, tot din Forul lui Traian. Fie impodobeau arcul lui Traian, fie alte monumente din acest for.

Dar ce cauta niste statui de daci, pe un monument ridicat la doua secole dupa epoca lui Traian? Reprezentau oare dacii modelul de dusman greu de infrant, devenit un simbol, un stereotip? Sau figurile pline de demnitate si intelepciune ale celor opt daci glorificau, din contra, maretia imparatului triumfator? Indiferent de raspuns, dacii din Roma par invingatori, nu invinsi.

Turistii incep sa umple Colosseum-ul, cei mai multi ignorand frumusetea statuilor de pe arcul de triumf. Ma alatur lor, fara sa pot fi impresionata prea tare de acest imens amfiteatru, in care a curs atat de mult sange, s-au ucis atatea animale si atatia oameni. Colosseum-ul este, pentru mine, cel mai bun loc pentru a admira, de la inaltime, chipurile scaldate de eternitate ale dacilor de pe Arcul lui Constantin.

 

Intoarcerea dacilor

 

Un bust enorm, probabil, candva, statuie intreaga, se afla la Muzeul Borghese: un tanar dac, cu ambele maini lipsa si cu fata zdrobita. Alte statui, capete si busturi de daci se gaseau odinioara in Roma, in muzeele Torlonia, Lateran, Capitolin, sau chiar in atelierele unor sculptori, precum Canova si Tadolini sau Monteverde, iar lista nu se opreste aici.

Din pacate, colectiile au fost mutate de colo-colo, au fost vandute, descompuse, reintregite, iar urma dacilor a fost pierduta adesea. Dar Roma nu este singura care ascunde astfel de comori. La Florenta se afla cateva statui minunate de daci, din porfir, alte statui se gasesc la Napoli.

In afara Italiei, ii gasim in multe muzee si colectii private: la Oxford, Berlin, la Paris (Luvru), Madrid, la Praga, la Toulouse, Bruxelles, la Sankt Petersburg (Ermitaj), la Copenhaga, Smyrna, Atena, la New York, in Israel etc. Cel mai recent cap de dac a fost descoperit in 1999, in Forul lui Traian, si a fost expus, de curand, pentru scurta vreme, la Muzeul National de Istorie a Romaniei din Bucuresti.

Dacilor din muzee le mai zambeste cate un turist grabit, iar blitz-ul vreunui aparat de fotografiat le mai aminteste poate, vag, de scanteierile sabiei curbate, in ultima lor lupta de aparare a Sarmisegetuzei. Dacii din parcuri privesc de secole trecatorii, mereu altii, tot mai grabiti, iar cate o pasare se mai odihneste pe faldul mantiei aristocratice, prinse pe umarul stang cu o fibula domneasca.

Iar in depozitele prafuite, din cand in cand, un paianjen isi tese panza in cate o palma de dac… Cine sa le poarte de grija? Cine sa le redea identitatea? Cine sa le descifreze misterul si sa-i readuca, simbolic macar, acasa?

Leonard Velcescu s-a stabilit in Franta de mai multa vreme. Teza lui de doctorat in istoria artelor, sustinuta in anul 2000 la Sorbona, are ca subiect tocmai aceste reprezentari de daci. Un tanar modest si o lucrare de mare valoare, care nu doar inventariaza busturi, capete si statui, ci patrunde in adancul unor intelesuri care nu au mai fost accesibile nimanui inaintea sa.

Raspunsurile pe care ni le-a dat la cele cateva intrebari pe care i le-am adresat ne-au convins de importanta cu totul exceptionala, nebanuita, a acestui subiect. Fie ca eforturile sale sa-i fie rasplatite, macar cu bucuria si mandria pe care le vor simti cei care, datorita lui, vor afla, poate pentru prima data, despre acesti daci vitregiti de soarta si despre insemnatatea lor imensa in istorie.

 

“Statuile au fost sculptate dupa modele reale. Multi prizonieri daci au fost adusi la Roma”

 

Lucrarile de specialitate ne indicau un numar mic de statui de daci. Dumneavoastra ati gasit peste o suta. Cum ati dat de urma lor si de unde provin?

– Am inceput cu ani in urma aceasta cercetare a imaginilor de daci in sculptura, cautand prin salile muzeelor si prin rezervele lor. Multe lucruri importante stau prin rezerve, uitate si abandonate. De altele am aflat datorita mentiunilor mai vechi, din literatura de specialitate. Aceste sculpturi de daci, pastrate acum in muzee si colectii particulare, au fost gasite in mare parte in Forul lui Traian si au fost facute de artistii antici romani (oficiali, de la “curte”) in perioada lui Traian.

Exista insa si statui de daci facute intr-o perioada mai tarzie, posterioara lui Traian (de exemplu, in timpul lui Hadrian), care au cu totul alta origine si o alta istorie. Este foarte important de retinut ca, din punct de vedere iconografic, in timpul lui Traian, arta romana se afla la apogeul ei, iar calitatea sculpturilor de daci, din punct de vedere portretistic, este remarcabila.

Nicidecum nu au fost lucrate ca o imagine stereotipa, adica toate la fel, cum se reprezentau de pilda divinitatile, ci au fost sculptate dupa modele reale (prizonierii daci au fost dusi in numar mare la Roma), intr-un stil realist roman, caracteristic pentru aceasta perioada. Detaliile sunt minutios realizate si naturaliste, reprezentand fizionomia detaliata a fiecarui personaj: atitudine demna, privire agera, de neinvins, calma la exterior, r elativ agitata la interior, gata sa treaca la actiune, la momentul potrivit.

Cand ma refer la sculpturile de daci redate in teza mea, vorbesc, bineinteles, de statui, statui acefale (fara cap), busturi, capete, multe fragmente (brate, maini, picioare, incaltaminte – opinci de tipul celor ce se poarta astazi in Mehedinti – Izverna etc.). Mai am in studiu o serie de imagini de “barbari” (daci) care nu sunt inca incluse in catalogul cartii, inca nu le-am studiat complet: unele sunt antice, altele au fost facute intr-o perioada mai recenta, intr-un stil de amator, provincial, rustic etc.

– Toate statuile provin din Forul lui Traian? Care era rostul lor? Unde erau asezate in antichitate?

– Aceste statui de daci au fost facute de romani in perioada lui Traian, pentru Forul de la Roma. Conform reconstituirilor Forului lui Traian facute de italieni si, ceva mai recent, de americani, cred ca au fost la origine in jur de o suta de statui de daci. In curtea principala a forului, aceste statui se aflau la inaltime, deasupra porticurilor (galeriilor) care inconjurau piata principala a acestui for, cam in dreptul fiecarei coloane care sustinea porticul.

Acestor statui din marmura trebuie sa li se adauge si statuile din porfir rosu-visiniu care au facut parte din faimosul portic din porfir al forului. Nu se poate sti exact cate statui de daci au facut parte din acest portic, mentionat de mai multe ori in antichitate. De altfel, asa s-a aflat de existenta lui, din scrieri, caci deocamdata arheologii nu au gasit nimic si nu au reusit sa-l localizeze in complexul forului.

De ce nu s-a mai gasit nici o urma? Pentru ca toate complexurile monumentale din Roma au fost “jefuite”, materialele au fost descompletate, luate si reutilizate la constructii, mai ales in timpul Renasterii. Si cum Forurile Imperiale erau garnisite cu diferite marmuri colorate de toate tipurile si nuantele, asa se poate explica de ce acest portic a disparut complet: era construit din porfir rosu, material de constructie deosebit de cautat in Renastere si Baroc. Si acest portic din porfir se pare ca a existat cu adevarat, caci au fost gasite 5 statui de daci din porfir rosu-visiniu. Doua se afla la Luvru, trei la Florenta, iar cateva fragmente in rezervele Forului lui Traian.

 

“Dacii au mainile impreunate,nu legate, asa cum procedau romanii cu prizonierii barbari”

 

– Se considera ca toate aceste reprezentari sunt ale unor daci prizonieri. Exista si statui de daci liberi, in alte posturi decat cea de prizonier?

– Toata literatura de specialitate considera ca este vorba de reprezentari de daci “prizonieri”, insa eu nu sunt de acord cu aceasta interpretare. Este mult de spus, dar incerc sa rezum in cateva cuvinte. Daca observam cu atentie aceste statui, se poate remarca faptul ca personajele sunt intr-o pozitie demna, normala, linistita, de repaus, si nicidecum intr-o pozitie agitata, furioasa, umilitoare.

Aceasta pozitie cu mainile impreunate (nu legate!) se poate vedea si azi la taranii nostri. Cand ceream voie sa fotografiez in Romania, la sate, tarani in costumul popular, mi se raspundea “asteptati, va rog”, isi dregeau putin hainele de pe ei, le scuturau putin cu mana si – aici devine interesant – impreunau mainile in fata, la nivelul pantecului, deci luau exact aceeasi pozitie pe care o au statuile de daci.

Un alt indiciu este acela ca romanii, pentru a face prizonier un “barbar”, il legau cu mainile la spate, pentru a-i reduce mobilitatea mainilor, cu catuse (foarte asemanatoare cu cele din zilele noastre), cu lanturi. Insa in cazul dacilor, nici vorba de asa ceva. Prin urmare, pot sa spun ca nu am intalnit la nici una din sculpturile de daci din Forul lui Traian aceasta imagine (reala) de prizonier, descrisa mai sus.

– Daca nu este vorba de niste prizonieri de razboi, care era totusi rostul lor intr-un for care celebra tocmai infrangerea dacilor?

– Este foarte mult de discutat in jurul acestui subiect, care are numeroase ramificatii si paranteze. Pot sa va spun ca aceste sculpturi ocupau un loc foarte important din punct de vedere iconografic, fiind ca o imagine a “barbarilor” in inima lumii romane, adica la Roma. De ce romanii (mai precis Traian) au decis sa-i reprezinte pe daci, popor considerat “barbar”, in centrul de elita al lumii romane? De ce nu au fost reprezentate personalitatile romane, cum ar fi fost mult mai logic? Este un Mare, Mare Mister. Nu trebuie sa uitam ca acest for a fost construit pentru a-l glorifica pe imparatul Traian.

Dar, in urma constatarilor arheologice, putem adauga ca, in acelasi timp, acest loc de o mare importanta pentru romani a fost dedicat in mare parte si glorificarii dacilor. Invinsii au fost glorificati si omagiati de invingatori. Acest lucru consider ca este de o mare importanta si poate fi considerat total iesit din comun. Adica, romanii au adus, au implantat, de buna voie, imaginea dacilor, un popor invins, imaginea lumii “barbare”, in locul cel mai de pret al lor, Forul.

– Exista, intre aceste chipuri, vreunul despre care sa se poata spune cu destula certitudine ca este al regelui Decebal?

– Sa nu uitam, domeniul artei nu este o stiinta exacta, aici putem vorbi de ipoteze plauzibile, de idei mai mult sau mai putin sustinute, dovedite, analizate etc. Da, este foarte posibil sa existe si un portet al lui Decebal. Am intalnit printre aceste sculpturi de daci mai multe (trei), care se aseamana foarte mult intre ele si care par a reprezenta acelasi personaj.

In mod logic, ne punem intrebarea urmatoare: de ce oare romanii si-au dat silinta de a reprezenta acelasi chip de dac de mai multe ori ? Este foarte posibil ca acest dac sa fie un anume dac, o personalitate, regele dacilor, insusi Decebal. Iar aceste ipoteze devin si mai sustinute, daca comparam aceste capete (unul de la Vatican si doua de la Florenta – Gradina Boboli si Muzeul Domului) cu imaginile lui Decebal de pe Columna lui Traian: avem marea surpriza de a constata ca asemanarile sunt foarte mari.

Un al patrulea cap de dac, pastrat in Rusia, la Ermitaj, prezinta mari asemanari cu celelalte trei. Dar ceea ce m-a intrigat putin – si din acest motiv am ezitat sa-l tratez laolalta cu celelalte trei – este faptul ca personajul, desi seamana mult cu celelalte, pare sa fie mai in varsta. Este posibil sa faca parte din familia lui Decebal? De ce nu? Textele antice chiar pomenesc de un frate al lui Decebal, pe nume Diegis.

E drept, nu este decat o ipoteza. Mai mentionez ca in Forul lui Traian si in alte muzee (la New York, de exemplu) am gasit si copii “barbari”. Am discutat cu conservatorii de la Forul lui Traian si de la Vatican, si acestia au fost de acord ca aceste reprezentari de copii, gasite in Forul lui Traian, sunt copii “barbari” (si nicidecum copii de romani), iar imbracamintea ce se identifica pe aceste fragmente si tipurile figurilor lor pledeaza pentru iconografia dacica. Deci, copii daci.

 

Mai rea decat moartea: uitarea

 

Au auzit istoricii nostri de Leonard Velcescu si de nepretuita sa lucrare? Au auzit ei de aceste minunate statui, martore ale identitatii noastre? A incercat Ministerul Culturii sa le inventarieze, sa imprumute macar o parte din ele si sa organizeze o expozitie in Romania? Sau cel putin sa finanteze efectuarea unor duplicate, pentru a-i aduce acasa pe acesti daci ramasi pe meleaguri straine, de doua mii de ani? Sau a incercat sa fotografieze toate aceste reprezentari risipite in intreaga lume si sa alcatuiasca un album?

Aceste chipuri de daci ne privesc, peste mari si tari si peste secole departare. Ei nu sunt prizonieri: nu exista nici macar o singura statuie de dac cu mainile in lanturi. Ochii lor ascund o enigma, expresia lor este aceea a unor intelepti.

De ce au vrut romanii sa ii aiba, in mijlocul Romei si in mijlocul imperiului lor, pe acesti enigmatici initiati, cu privirea lor senina, dar de nedescifrat? De ce i-au adus in for si le-au inchinat o grandioasa columna, celebrandu-le moartea si sacrificiul? Nu Traian si neamul sau de cuceritori ai lumii sunt cei ce i-au scos pe daci din istorie. Dimpotriva! Lor trebuie sa le fim recunoscatori pentru ca i-au facut nemuritori, prin trupul marmurei.

Noi suntem cei ce vrem sa-i dam afara pe daci din tara lor, prin nepasarea noastra. Noi suntem cei care continuam sa le risipim cetatile, fara sa le vedem sufletul in fiecare piatra, cum adevarat jelesc versurile poetului: “De teama sa nu inviem,/ Ne-au risipit cetatile, ne-au ucis altarele,/ Toate frumusetile, ca-ntr-un blestem,/ Ni le-au schilodit. Si-am ramas doar cu soarele./ Din el ne-am croit poteci in padure, in munte,/ Langa vetre marunte./ Daca te uiti bine, inapoi/ In pietre, nemuritori, suntem noi, numai noi”.

 

sursa: Formula-AS

22 comments

  1. Sunt aceiaşi Daci de care se ruşinează “istoricii” de astăzi. Însă noi ne ruşinăm de aceşti istorici inconştienţi sau colaboraţionişti.

  2. Problema este ca aveti, avem in fata un adversar perfid si bolnav care ascunde istoria demna a poporului din care pretind ca fac parte. Faptul ca dumneavoastra nu ati gasit, poate, formula optima de a transmite si a asambla niste lucruri, ma refer mai ales la perioada in care stiati mai putine, nu are prea mare relevanta.

  3. Multumim domnule Velcescu ca ne-ai luminat, si multumesc si lui V.Roman ca a postat articolul pe blog.
    Domnul sa va lumineze calea si noua romanilor si mintea sa intelegem cine erau adevaratii daci; dupa cele spuse si vazute aici pana si romanii din acele timpuri au stiut sa-i pretuiasca,pe adevaratii nostrii stramosi, cum de nu stim noi.
    Nici sa vrem sa schimbam cu ei acum statuia lui Traian pe una de dac nu vor fi de acord; in primul rand ai noistrii.

    Sa fie focu, foc si apa, apa.
    Sa fie lemnu, lemn si piatra ,piatra.

  4. Pentru toti cei interesati de adevarata noastra istorie, despre noile descoperiri ale trecutului marelui popor dac, le recomand cu caldura documentarele (daca nu le-au urmarit pana acum:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=duj_84hnc58
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUIS30dFgG4
    Pentru toti care au vizionat documentarele, dacii din Roma nu mai sunt un mister (istoricii romani subliniau arborele genealogic al imparatului Traian ca fiind dac/trac). Astfel apare logic tratamentul aplicat dacilor dupa invingere. Din documentare puteti afla teribilul secret al istoriei, anume ca romanii(cetatenii Romei) sunt urmasii tracilor si nu romanii (cetatenii Romaniei) sunt urmasi ai romanilor. Cam greu de “digerat” acest adevar de catre marile puteri europene, si, cu atat mai mult, de italieni.
    Ave Cezar, urmas al tracilor!

  5. Demult suntem umilitii tiganii(dar din asia) facuti dar nam periit ca stam la temelia Europei pe care noii am zi!!!.Popor de (!!!!!) cind cultivam pamintul si ne ingrijeam vite si de viee alti nustiau de vie(VIN)sau cum sal faca.Iar multii isi cauta trecutul in Africa sau prin Mongolia pe fratii lor de prin copacii sau !!!!.E foartee bine ca suntem neam de DAC (tracii-Getii)

  6. Voi nu ştiţi cum s-a întâmplat. I-au cioplit în piatră după acei prizonieri, aparent resemnaţi, ca să-şi găsească liniştea.

  7. Stimate Domnule Valentin Roman,
    Din pacate nu sunt semnale ca Ministerul Culturii se va implica in publicarea in Romania a extraordinarei teze de doctorat la Sorbona a Domnului Leonard Velcescu privind statuile cu daci raspandite prin muzeele lumii.
    Nu considerati util ca impreuna cu Domnul Daniel Roxin si Doamna Aurora Petan sa luati legatura si acceptul Domnului Dr. Velcescu pentru a-i publica aceast material de interes major in tara? Albumul ar putea fi publicat de editura Vidia unde Domnul Roxin a publicat “Spiritul dacic renaste”, care mi-a fost trimisa recent din tara noastra natala.
    Din articol se intelege ca Dr. Velcescu a continuat cercetarile sale pe acest subiect, deci la mai bine de 12 ani de la sustinerea tezei sale de doctorat, sunt convins ca mai are multe informatii extrem de utile sa ofere celor interesati de acest subiect major pentru istoria romanilor.

  8. CE MULT ESTE DE ATUNCI, SUNT 2000 DE ANI,
    ATUNCI NOI NE-AM NASCUT, DIN DACI SI DIN ROMANI,
    DECI TARA MEA SE CHEAMA, DACIA ROAMANA
    SI PENTRU VECIE EA TOT ASA ………

  9. Nu e nici un mister.Sunt statuile tradatorilor de neam dacic.
    Probabil că aşa cum a fost revoluţia din 1989 aşa a fost şi războiul lui Decebal cu Traian….Barbatul DECEBAL era incomod si trebuia eliminat,restul au facut aliante cu romanii asa cum fac azi aliante partidele cu ungurii.Dupa eliminarea lui Decebal au
    putut fura linistiti tot aurul si l-au impartit intre ei,mai mult tradatorii ,hotii s-au ales si cu statui.
    Si Burebista a fost tradat si ucis,era prea incomod pt casta
    preoteasca condusa de Deceneu.Exemplele pot continua cu;
    Tudor Vladimirescu,Vlad Tepes,Mihai Viteazul,Horea,Closca si Crisan,Cuza,si altii.

  10. …mda, se pare că suntem flancaţi de lichele care vor să semene printre noi îndoiala şi dezbinarea, în timp ce alţii au prea mult năduf

  11. Statuile, daca ne gandim la dimensiunile unora si la modul in care dacii au fost ipostaziati, nu sunt decat o recunoastere a maretiei cu care romanii au venit in contact. La urma-urmei sculptorii aceia erau oameni inteligenti si nici nu participasera la campaniile din Dacia.

  12. HAMBURG GENETICA A FACUT LUMINA..ce si cum o fost itorici adevarati vor stabiliinprejurarile respective ..cert este HAMBURG SI STIINTA GENETICA…urmeaza schimbarea formalitatile in acte..votam un presedinte cu astef de program..DACIA UNITA A INVIAT..AMIN.

  13. D.le nu ne gindim noi… asa sta scris de milenii in dreptul lor =STATUI DE DACI=consenare facuta de cei ce le-au facut[au etichite fiecare]

  14. noua romanilor..istoria noastra a fost musamalizata de multi in timp…..si am vrea sa fim recunoscuti de toti…ca si cea mai pura rasa din europa..popoarele europei de pe meleagurile noastre au plecat

  15. haideti fratilor sa schimbam numele tarii in DACIA si astfel ne-am mai reabilita si nu s-ar mai confunda numele nostru cu altul asemanator de care fug toti !!!

  16. Rome museums are full of unknown Dacian statues. Their appearance is, however, a mystery. “The losers/dacians” have winners figures and decorate the most important Roman monuments. Admired by thousands of visitors, but overall forgotten by their descendants from the Carpathians, the Dacians from the Vatican and the Arch of Constantine leaves the historians and the romanian Minister of Culture puzzeled.
    Between two statues of Roman matrons, Rutilia, daughter of Lucius, and Rutilia, daughter of Publius, was a colossal bust, carved in Phrygian marble: the biggest bust around Chiaramonte gallery of the Vatican, which has over 800 Greek sculptures Roman is a Dacian. With the right hand placed over the left hand wrist, with the mantle split at the elbows, head and mouth slightly open, looking forward, straight and quiet: after almost two thousand years, it still looks to Dacia.
     
    Secret meeting: Dacia Vatican
     
    Few are those who know that in the museums of the world there are a lot of statues, busts and heads representing Dacians. A first inventory of these works of art was made in 1946 and include 26 tracks. A second count, made in 1980, their number increased to 40.
    Finally, a thesis, recently devoted to this subject by a specialist in art history, Leonard Velcescu, bring together over a hundred such representations Dacians, and their number is certainly higher. Most of these works are large statues can even reach up to three meters, heads and busts are huge.
    No other people subjugated by Rome ever receive so much attention from artists and Trajan’s Column, a brilliant work that revolutionized Roman art is further proof of this. Most of the statues of Dacians were discovered over time in the Forum of Trajan. Very probably were custom made for the winner king, especially to adorn his forum.
    All come with the label “prisoner dac”. The statues represent Dacians with lofty looks in their eyes, but with a calm attitude, young or old, noble or commoner Dacians. In the gallery of the Vatican Museum Chiaramonte was such a noble bust if that exceeds three meters, complete with base, carved in marble Phrygian purple with veins. Tourists from all nations and stop shooting next sculpture impressed with inventory number 1697, without knowing whose face and soul is locked in the precious marble.
    Three colossal heads of Dacians, a bit perished by time, but very expressive, are in the same museum, the Braccio Nuovo hall, a gallery rarely accessible to the public. It was closed for the public, but through a simple glance trough the hostlie glass that separated us, I saw the unmistakable faces of the Dacians, dominating the entrance of the room. Because I could not miss such a troubling appointment with history, I got special permission to visit that room, under the supervision of a constable.
    There were so many tempting wonders of art housed at Braccio Nuovo, from precious mosaics, two thousand years old, the colossal statue of Nile personified, and I ran among decadent gods, Amazons injured and Roman emperors, to meeting with the three Dacians.
    On the right side of the hall, at number 9, there is a comatus, a comon dacian in his prime, with rich hair, slightly wavy, and short beard. Compared with him, the Roman heads from left and right, were twice smaller.
    Also on the right side, with the eyes like watching the Dacians, there is a bust of emperor Trajan. The tour continues to the left where almost to the exit and somewhat close face to face with the former dacian head, are placed the other two heads. A young comatus, has the serial number 115 and carries the inscription “Dacus Captivus” (dacian prisoner).
    Is very short beard, hair cut on the forehead, lips parted and the same attitude proud but calm. Finally, at number 124, there is a tarabostes (noble) with the so known cap/ hat. Is older than the other two, his elegant bushy beard is elegantly arranged. Has short hair comed to the back and forehead easily frown. His gaze is straight. Has slightly prominent cheekbones. The whole appearance denoting intelligence and determination. About this portrait it was said that it would be of the great king Decebal himself.
    At the hall door, the other tourists protest: they want to come inside. Though I am the only one privileged, in the vastness of the room, face to face with faces so vivid, so real, of some great Dacians. The gardian is letting me know of the end of my meeting. I look once more in the eyes the three Dacians. In the silence of Vatican I can almost hear Decebal murmuring, with his lips parted, a prayer.
     
    Triumph Way: The Dacians from the Arch of Constantine
     
    In February, at eight o’clock in the morning, yet Rome isn’t flooded with tourists. Close to the Colosseum, on the way that Roman emperors conducted their triumphal processions, it’s the largest triumphal arch in Rome, remained standing since antiquity. It’s the Arch of Constantine, erected by the senate in his honor after the bridge Milvius victory, against Maxentius. The event happend at the beginning of the fourth century of the Christian era. Four of the basoreliefs on the arch are depicting battle scenes from the Dacians and Romans wars.
    Already two centuries had passed since those battles, but apparently still exist in the memory of the Romans. It is believed that these basoreliefs were originally a part from a monument of Trajan and were then reused at the monument of Constantine. The head of Trajan depicted in these scenes was replaced by the head of Constantine, but the Dacians could not be replaced. An even more disturbing fact on eight of the Corinthian columns which decorated the arch, four on one side and four on the other, there are eight colossal statues of Dacians.
    These impressive statues guard the arch at a height of almost 25 meters. Four of them represent noble Dacians, and the other four, comon men, without hats. All have a dignified attitude, they slightly bow their heads and keep their hands together. They have stately beards, long hair flowing freely or waving them under hats. The robes adorned with fringe around the edges, are fastened on one shoulder and are long to their heels. Pants gathered at the ankles, their feet are embrassed by the traditional laced moccasins.
    Looking up to them, you think they look at you with kindness and understanding. At the same time, they look across the horizon and beyond to their country, Dacia. Most likely these statues come from the Forum of Trajan. Whether they were meant to adorned the Arch of Trajan, or other monuments in his forum.
    But what is the semnification of the Dacians statues on a monument built two centuries after the time of Trajan? Do the Dacians represent a model of en enemy difficult to defeat? Do they became a symbol, a stereotype? Or their faces full of dignity and wisdom of the eight Dacian glorify the triumphant and majestic king? Whatever the answer, the Dacians in Rome seem winners, not losers.
    As the tourists begin to fill the Colosseum, ignoring the most beautiful statues of the Arc de Triomphe, I join them. I could not be too impressed by this huge amphitheater, where so much blood has been shed, many animals were killed and many people. Colosseum is, for me, the best place to admire the sky, faces washed by the Dacians eternity on the Arch of Constantine.
     
    The Return of the Dacians
     
    A huge bust, probably sometime long ago, part of a whole body statue. There is at the Borghese Museum a statue of a young dacian man, with both hands missing and face crushed. Other statues, busts heads and the Dacians once were located in Rome, Torlonia museums, Lateran, Capitoline, or even in workshops of sculptors such as Canova and Tadolini or Monteverde, and the list does not stop there.
    Unfortunately, the collections were moved around, were sold, broken, reunified, and the Dacian trace was often lost. But Rome is not alone in hiding such treasures. At Florence there are several wonderful statues of Dacians, in porphyry, others are found in Naples.
    Outside Italy, we find in many museums and private collections: Oxford, Berlin, Paris (Louvre), Madrid, Prague, Toulouse, Brussels, St Petersburg (Hermitage) in Copenhagen, Smyrna, Athens, New York, in Israel, etc.. Most recently Dacian head was discovered in 1999, in the Forum of Trajan, and was exposed recently for a short time at the National History Museum of Romania in Bucharest.
    The Dacians from the museum receive sometimes a smile from a rushed tourist rush and the flash of any camera can remember them vaguely, the curved sword sparkle in their last fight to defend Sarmisegetuza. The Dacians from the parks with their aristocratic robe, caught on the left shoulder, are watching for centuries the passers-by or how the birds are using them as resting point.
    Occasionally, in the dusty warehouses, a spider weaves it’s cloth in the hand of a Dacian… Who cares? Who can give back their identity? Who can decipher the mystery and restore them symbolically, even at home?
    Leonard Velcescu settled in France for a long time. PhD’s thesis in art history, held in 2000 at the Sorbonne, has as a topic precisely these Dacians representations. A modest young man addresses a work of great value. He is not only inventorying busts, heads and statues, but penetrates deep meanings of which have never before been accessible to anyone.
    We asked a few questions that the answers convinced us completely of the exceptional importance, of this incredible topic, about the harsh fate of the Dacians and their immense significance in history.
     
    “The statues were carved after real models. Many Dacians have been brought as prisoners to Rome”
     
    – Literature indicates a small number of statues of Dacians. You’ve found more than a hundred. How you found them and where they come from?
    – Years ago I started this research Dacians images in sculpture, looking through the halls of museums and their reserves. Many things are by reservation, forgotten and abandoned. I found other mentions because older literature. These sculptures of Dacians, now preserved in museums and private collections, were found mostly in the Forum of Trajan and artists were made by ancient Romans (officials, the “Court”) in the time of Trajan.
    There are also statues of Dacians made in a later period, posterior Trajan (ex., during the reign of Hadrian), which have very different origin and a different history. It is important to note that, in terms of iconography, in the time of Trajan, Romanian art was at its peak and sculptures of Dacians quality, in terms of portraiture, is outstanding.
    Were by no means worked as a stereotypical images, meaning all the same, as represented for example divinities, but were carved by real models (Dacian prisoners were taken in large numbers in Rome), a realistic novel style, characteristic for this period. Details are thoroughly completed and naturalistic detail of each character representing physiognomy: dignified, eyesight, unbeatable, calm exterior, misleading hectic inside, ready to take action at the right time.
    When I refer to the sculptures of Dacians played in my thesis, all statues, headless statues, busts, heads, many fragments (arms, hands, legs, shoes – the same type of sandals that you find today in Tripura – Izverna and so on). I have studied a series of pictures of the so called “barbarians” (Dacians) that are not yet included in the catalog book, we have not yet fully studied: some are ancient, others were made in a more recent period, in a style amateur, provincial, rustic etc.
    – All statues come from the Forum of Trajan? What was their purpose? Where were placed in antiquity?
    – The statues of Dacians were made by the Romans in the time of Trajan, the Forum of Rome. During Trajan’s Forum reconstructions made by Italians and, more recently, by americans, have been counted about a hundred statues of Dacians. In the main court of the forum, these marble statues were placed high above the porticoes (gallery) which surrounded the main court of this forum, next to each column which supported the portico.
    To these marble statues must be added another set of statues made from burgundy red porphyry. We do not know the original number of these statues, since only a few survived. They were part of the famous porphyry portico of the forum, mentioned several times in antiquity. The existence of the porphyry portico appears in writings, but so far the archaeologists have not been able to locate it in the court complex or find any trace of it.
    Why has not yet been found any trace? All monumental complexes of Rome were “robbed”. Luxury stones like red porphyry and other materials were very rare and reused in construction, particularly during the Renaissance and Baroque it was said that the Imperial Fora was garnished with various colored marbles of all types and colors, so you can explain why this portico completely disappeared. Luckily, were found five statues of Dacians made from the burgundy red porphyry. Two are in the Louvre, three in Florence and some fragments in Trajan’s Forum reserves.
     
    “Dacians statues have their hands together, in a relaxed attitude, not tied up. This does not related with the other representations of barbarian prisoners in Roman art”
     
    It is considered that these representations are of some Dacian prisoners.

    – The speciality literature considers these statues as representations of Dacians “prisoners”. But I disagree with this interpretation. There is much to say, but I try to summarize in a few words. If we observe carefully these statues, one can notice that the characters are in a dignifying worthy position, normal, quiet, resting, and not in an agitated position, angry, humiliating.
    This position with hands clasped (not tied!) you can see it even today at the romanian farmers today. When asking permission to photograph in Romania, the villagers in their traditional costume, they reply “wait, please,” mending their costumes a little with their hands and – here it gets interesting – hands clasped in front, in the womb, so took exactly the same position they were statues of Dacians.
    Another clue is that the Romans to make from “barbarians” a roman prisoners, they tied their hands behind their back, to reduce mobility, like hands with handcuff chains (very similar to those of today). But this method was not applied to Dacians. Therefore, in any of the sculptures of Dacians of the Trajan’s Forum, the Dacians are not depicted as prisoners, but with honor.
    – If they are not prisoners of war, what is their purpose in a very famous forum that celebrates exactly the defeat of the Dacians?
    – There is a lot of discussion around this topic, which has many branches and brackets. I can tell you that these images play a very important iconographic point of view, is that a picture of the “barbarians” in the heart of the Roman world, that is Rome. Why the Romans (especially Traian) decided to represent the Dacians, people considered “barbarian”, in the center of the Roman elite world? Why were not represented Roman personalities, as would have been much more logical? It’s a Great, Great Mystery. We must not forget that this forum was built to glorify Emperor Trajan.
    But archeological findings, we can add that, while this place of great importance for the Romans was dedicated in part to the glorification of Dacians. Tributes have been glorified the losers and the winners. This I think is of great importance and can be considered completely out of the ordinary.

    Between these faces, is any of which can be said with sufficient certainty that belongs to the king Decebal?

    Do not forget, art is not an exact science, here we can speak of plausible assumptions, ideas more or less sustained, documented, analyzed, etc..
    But, Yes, it is possible to have a portrait of Decebalus. I saw trough all those sculptures of Dacians three, which resemble each other and seem to represent the same noble character.
    Logically, the next question is: why the Romans did their best to represent the same face several times? It is very possible to represent the personality of the Dacian king, himself Decebal. These assumptions become more sustained when we compare these heads,
    the one in Vatican and the two in Florence (- Boboli Garden and Museum Dome) with Decebal images from the Trajan’s Column: Looking at that we have great surprise to find that the similarities are very high .
    A fourth head is kept in Russia, at the Hermitage. It shows great similarities with the other three. But what intrigued me a bit – and that’s why I hesitate to treat it together with the other three – is that character, although much like the others, appears to be older. Decebal comited suicide after the defeat at Sarmisegetuza, there for it may be part of the family of Decebal? Ancient texts mention a brother of Decebal named Diegis.
    It’s true, is only a hypothesis. In addition I’d like to mention that at the Trajan’s Forum and in other museums (in New York, for example) have been also found “barbarians” children. I talked to the historians from the Trajan’s Forum and from the Vatican. They agreed that these representations of children can not be roman children and by studying their clothing and facial characteristics they incline to identify these fragments as Dacian figures, so the children of Dacians.
     
    Worse than death is forgetting
     
    Did the historians heard of Leonard’s Velcescu priceless work? Have they heard of these wonderful statues, witnessing Dacian identity? Did the Ministry of Culture tried make an inventory of this art, to borrow at least some of them and organize an exhibition in Romania? Or at least to fund performing duplicates, to bring home the remaining Dacians from foreign lands? Or tried to photograph all these representations scattered throughout the world and to compile them in an album?
    These faces are of watching Dacians, from overseas and centuries away. They are not prisoners: there is not a single statue with hands in chains. Their eyes hide a mystery and honor, their expression is that of the wise.
    Why did the Romans wanted to have them in the middle of Rome and in the middle of their empire, their enigmatic images of initiates, with serene, unreadable gaze? Why have they been brought to the forum and worshiped them on the grand Trajan’s Column, celebrating their death and sacrifice, made them immortal in marble bodies?
    We are the ones who chase the Dacians outside their country, with our indifference. We are the ones wasting our old cities, without seeing the soul of every stone who tells a tell. Like the poet mourns: ” Out of the fear of resurrection, / They have been wasted our cities, killed our altars, / All our beauties, like in a curse, / Have been crippled. And all we got left is the sun( Zamolxis). / From him he cut us paths in the woods, in the mountains, / Near small homes. / If you look good, back / In the rocks, the immortals is us, only us. ”
     
    Source: Formula-AS

  17. Mi-ar placea tare mult ca acest articol sa apara in unul din ziarele centrale din Romania si odata cu aparitia acestui articol,mass-media sa-i ofere acestui subiect o importanta mult mai mare.Spun asta deoarece,o natie pentru o buna desfasurare a ei trebuie mai intai sa stie de unde se trage,in cazul nostru,unul fericit spun eu,ne tragem dintr-un popor viteaz,brav si foarte curajos dupa cum a spus insusi marele istoric HERODOT.

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